CPR is an important life skill which can be used in many situations including submersion incidents and drowning.

On this page you will find a collection of [or links to] national and international research offering a sound source of information and evidence.

Moran, K., Stanley, T. & Rutherford, A. (2012). Toddler Drowning Prevention: Teaching parents about child CPR in conjunction with their child’s in-water lessons. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education. 6, 315-324.

The purpose of this study was to develop a programme that addressed parental misconceptions of child CPR. Link to abstract.

Moran, K., & Webber, J. (2012).  Too much puff, not enough push? Surf lifeguard simulated CPR performance. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education. 6, 13-23.

The purpose of this paper is to report on the technical competency of volunteer surf lifeguards to perform CPR on a manikin in light of their lifeguard experience, age and gender. Link to abstract.

Moran, K. & Webber, J. (2011). Surf Lifeguard knowledge, practice and perceptions of CPR – 2011. Technical report to Surf Life Saving New Zealand Northern Region and WaterSafe Auckland Inc. Auckland: WaterSafe Auckland.

While all lifeguards are required to train/retrain in CPR and other emergency skills each year, little is known about their competency to perform CPR and their perceptions of its value and function.

The aim of this study was to comprehensively analyse volunteer lifeguard’s real and perceived competencies in CPR, an important aspect of their role and function in emergency response situations.

Moran, K & Stanley, T. (2011). Toddler parent training, understanding, and perceptions of CPR. Resuscitation, 82(5), 572-576

Little is known about parent CPR skills and their perceptions of its use, especially in the context of drowning incidents among young children where parents are often the first responder. The primary objective of the study was to examine parently understanding of child and adult CPR, extent of CPR training, and parental confidence to perform CPR. The full abstract and text for this research can be found on the Resuscitation Journal website.

Petrass, L., Blitvich, J, & Finch, C. (2011). Lack of caregiver supervision: a contributing factor in Australian unintentional child drowning deaths, 2000-2009. MJA 2011; 194 (5:) 228-231

The objective of this study was to establish how frequently supervision was explicitly identified as a factor on coroner-certified unintentional drowning deaths of children in Australia, to determine the percentage of cases where failure of supervision may have been a contributing factor and to identify the proportion of cases with coroner’s recommendations relating to supervision and unintentional child drownings. This research can be found on the Medical Journal of Australia website.

Kyriacou, Arcinue, Peek & Kraus (1994). Effects of Immediate Resuscitation (Resus) on Children with Submersion Injury.

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of immediate resuscitative efforts on the neurological outcome of children with submersion injury. It identified the need for early commencement of CPR and stressed the need for all parents, caregivers and individuals to learn CPR techniques.

For further information and links to training providers visit the CPR page.